fs pulses deliver energy to the electron subsystem in less time than it takes for electrons to give it to the lattice. For this reason, when micromachining is performed by the fs laser there is minimal thermal effect which enables ’’cold processing’’ of the material. For this reason cutting and drilling performed with ultrashort pulses have superior quality. Furthermore, high peak intensities allows to easily reach thresholds for various nonlinear effects in the material which opens the possibilities to use fs pulses for creation of the integrated 3D structures in transparent dielectrics or functional 3D micro- and nanostructures out of polymers via direct laser writing (DLW).

Microfabrication by multi-photon polymerization is a direct laser-write technique which allows 3D sturcturing of photopolymers at the micro- and nanoscale. This can be achieved through combination of various nonlinear effects, careful consideration of laser radiation parameters and precise focusing conditions. For this reason 3DLL was used for creation of functional devices in fields of nanophotonics, microoptics, microfluidics, micromechanics, tissue engineering and much more. It is important to note, that there is huge variety of materials that can be processed by applying 3DLL, including hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymers, biodegradable polymers, elastomers, proteins and so on. 

Laser ablation based on ultra-fast interaction between material and femtosecond laser irradiation allows "cold processing" with minimal thermal effects and superb cut quality without damaging the surrounding material.

Selective laser etching is a two-step process. First, the volume of glass or sapphire is modified by ultra-short radiation, then the material is chemically etched away. In this way mechanically stable and durable structures can be created.


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